Warm Soup For The Cold Fall Nights!

SOURCE: https://www.loveandlemons.com/carrot-ginger-soup/

Someday when the hot summer goes away and let’s the fall evening start coming in here is something yummy to look forward too! Our friends over at loveandlemons.com have some awesome soups to warm you up:

Carrot Ginger Soup

Ingredients

  • 1 tablespoon extra-virgin olive oil
  • 1 cup chopped yellow onions
  • 3 garlic cloves, smashed
  • 2 heaping cups chopped carrots
  • 1½ teaspoons grated fresh ginger
  • 1 tablespoon apple cider vinegar
  • 3 to 4 cups vegetable broth
  • Sea salt and fresh black pepper
  • 1 teaspoon maple syrup, or to taste (optional)
  • coconut milk for garnish, optional
  • dollops of pesto, optional

Instructions

  • Heat the olive oil in a large pot over medium heat. Add the onions and a generous pinch of salt and pepper and cook until softened, stirring occasionally, about 8 minutes. Add the smashed garlic cloves (they’ll get blended later) and chopped carrots to the pot and cook about 8 minutes more, stirring occasionally.
  • Stir in the ginger, then add the apple cider vinegar, and then add 3 to 4 cups of broth, depending on your desired consistency. Reduce to a simmer and cook until the carrots are soft, about 30 minutes.
  • Let cool slightly and transfer to a blender. Blend until smooth. Taste and adjust seasonings. Add maple syrup, if desired.
  • Serve with a drizzle of coconut milk and/or a dollop of pesto, if desired.
SOURCE: https://www.loveandlemons.com/potato-soup-recipe/

Creamy Potato Soup

Ingredients

  • 3 tablespoons extra-virgin olive oil, divided
  • 1 large white onion, chopped
  • ½ teaspoon sea salt
  • 4 garlic cloves, chopped
  • 1 tablespoon white wine vinegar
  • 4 cups vegetable broth
  • 1½ pounds Yukon gold potatoes, about 5, chopped
  • 1½ cups cooked white beans, drained and rinsed
  • ½ teaspoon Dijon mustard
  • 1 tablespoon fresh lemon juice
  • ¼ teaspoon smoked paprika
  • Freshly ground black pepper

Instructions

  • Heat 2 tablespoons olive oil in a large pot or Dutch oven over medium heat. Add the onion, salt, and several grinds of pepper. Sauté 6 to 8 minutes, until softened.
  • Add the garlic, stir, and cook 2 more minutes. Stir in the white wine vinegar and cook, stirring, for 30 seconds, and then add the broth, potatoes, and white beans. Bring to a boil, reduce the heat, and simmer 30 minutes.
  • Let cool slightly, then transfer half of the soup to a blender with the remaining 1 tablespoon olive oil, the mustard, lemon juice, and paprika. Blend until smooth and return the pureed soup back to the pot.
  • Use a potato masher to gently smash the potato chunks and beans. Season to taste with more salt and pepper and serve with desired toppings.
SOURCE: https://www.loveandlemons.com/yellow-split-pea-soup/

Yellow Split Pea Soup

Ingredients

  • 1 tablespoon extra-virgin olive oil
  • 1 yellow onion, chopped
  • 2 stalks celery, diced
  • 3 cloves garlic, minced
  • 6 cups vegetable broth
  • 1 cup yellow split peas
  • 1 medium Yukon gold potato, peeled and chopped
  • Kernels from 4 ears corn (about 2 1⁄2 cups)
  • 3⁄4 teaspoon smoked paprika
  • 1 teaspoon sea salt, more to taste
  • 3⁄4 cup Cashew Cream (recipe below)
  • 1½ tablespoons apple cider vinegar

Cashew Cream (makes extra)

  • 3⁄4 cup raw cashews (soaked 2 hours, if not using a Vitamix)
  • 2⁄3 cup water
  • 1⁄4 teaspoon salt

Toppings options:

  • chives
  • extra fresh corn kernels
  • chopped parsley
  • red pepper flakes
  • coconut bacon
  • olive oil, for drizzling

Instructions

  1. Make the cashew cream. Combine the cashews, water, and salt in a blender and process until very smooth. Set ¾ cup aside.
  2. Heat the oil in a large pot over medium heat. Add the onion and celery and cook, stirring occasionally, for 5 to 7 minutes, until the onion is tender and translucent. Add the garlic and cook, stirring constantly, for 1 minute.
  3. Stir in the broth, split peas, potato, corn, paprika, and salt and bring to a boil over high heat. Lower the heat, cover, and simmer, stirring occasionally, for about 45 minutes, until the split peas are completely tender.
  4. Use an immersion blender to partially puree the soup, or puree about half of it in a regular blender and return it to the pot. Stir in the Cashew Cream and apple cider vinegar. Taste and adjust the seasonings if desired. (I added up to 1 teaspoon more sea salt here). Serve piping hot, with any desired toppings.

PINEAPPLE, MANGO AND APPLE TURNOVERS

SOURCE: https://www.tajin.com/us/recipe/pineapple-mango-and-apple-turnovers/

So our friends over at Tajin added another dessert recipe with a twist. Pineapple, mango, apple turnover with tajin? If you love your tajin I think this is worth trying out:

INGREDIENTS

  • 2 cups fresh pineapple, chopped small
  • 1 cup mango, fresh or frozen, chopped small
  • 1 cup apple, peeled, seeded and chopped small
  • 3/4 cup brown sugar
  • 1/2 cup orange juice
  • 1 each cinnamon stick
  • 2 tablespoons fresh lemon juice
  • 2 tablespoons Tajín Clásico
  • 2 teaspoons cornstarch
  • 2 tablespoons water
  • 4 each pie crusts, use prepared refrigerated crusts (9-inch) or make your own

Topping Ingredients

  • 1/4 cup powdered sugar
    1 tablespoon Tajín Clásico
  • Combine all ingredients EXCEPT Tajín, cornstarch and water.
  • Cook over low heat stirring frequently until reduced to 1 1/2 cups / .33 liter.
  • Make a slurry of the cornstarch and water and stir into filling. Bring to a boil and cook until thickened (1 – 2 minutes).
  • Remove filling from heat, remove cinnamon stick and cool to room temperature.
  • Stir in Tajín.
  • Roll out prepared pie crusts and cut eight 3-inch circles from each. If you wish you can roll out the scraps and cut more circles until you don’t have enough dough to make any more.
  • Place 1 teaspoon / 5 ml of filling on each circle. Fold in half and seal the edges by pressing down with a fork all the way along the edges.
  • To help keep the filling inside the dough follow this technique. Imagine a line drawn across the center of each circle and place your filling with 2/3s of it above the line.
  • Then fold from the top down. This will help keep the filling inside the dough. Start pressing the two edges from the center out to the fold in one direction and then the other.

Preheat oven to 350F / 175 C.

  • Bake until crust is golden (about 20 – 25 minutes).
  • Combine powdered sugar and Tajín.
  • Dust turnovers with powdered sugar and Tajín mixture immediately upon removing from the oven.

Store in a single layer in an airtight container at room temperature.

Pickled Carrots Onions & Serrano Peppers

If you have ever been to an authentic Mexican Food restaurant you have tried this before. I can only have the carrots and onions not the serrano peppers I would die! If you have the time and love to add spice to your dishes try out this family recipe:

Ingredients

4 cups of water

4 cups of white vinegar

3 garlic cloves

7 carrots sliced

2 onions sliced

5 whole serrano peppers

1 tbsp of salt

1 tbsp black peppercorns

1 tbsp marjoram

6 whole bay leaves

Instructions

Boil water, slice carrots and onions ahead of time. Add water and vinegar in a 1 gallon mason jar. Add garlic cloves, onion, carrots, and serrano mix all the ingredients well with a wooden spoon. Add spices and mix well again cover and find a nice spot on your counter for the jar to sit for a week. You can leave out and it will keep getting spicer by the day eat within a month.

RAW PUMPKIN SEED BUTTER PRALINES

Want to make a great treat at home to have the whole family on a sugar rush pralines is the way to go. Learn to make these it’s fast and easy but careful not to make a mess. There are many different recipes from original to all different nuts and added butters base recipe is the same. I tried macadamia honey nut butter and also pumpkin seed butter with sea salt that was my favorite:

INGREDIENTS

  • 1 1/2 cup white sugar
  • 3/4 cup packed light brown sugar
  • 1/2 cup milk (Vegan plant base milk)
  • 6 tbsp unsalted butter, (Vegan butter)
  • 2 cups pecan pieces (use any other nut you like)
  • 2 tbsp pumpkin seed butter (see below)
  • 1 tsp vanilla extract
  • Sea salt for topping

INSTRUCTIONS

1. Set out parchment paper for making the pralines
2. Melt butter on medium heat use a wooden spoon. Add milk and vanilla extract, to the center add the brown and white sugar do get any on the sides stir regularly until it begins to foam and boil.
3. Add pecans when it begins to foam and boil, stir constantly don’t let any sugar get on the sides of the pot.
4. Keep stirring until it reaches 238 to 240 degrees use a candy thermometer wait for it to reaches “soft ball” mark.
5. Remove from heat stir in pepita butter until it’s all mixed together once the cold air starts getting into mix it will start to thicken.
6. Quickly drop scoopful on parchment paper and allow them to cool and firm. If the mixture is too thin and spreads more than you want, stir a little bit more. If the mixture starts to cool too much as you’re scooping, place it back on the warm burner (but don’t turn it on) and let it keep the mixture warmer. Sprinkle with sea salt.
7. When pralines are cool and firm, store in an airtight container.

Ingredients for pumpkin butter

1 cup raw pumpkin seeds

1-2 teaspoons olive oil

1 pinch sea salt

Instructions

  1. Process the raw pumpkin seeds in a blender or food processor until you achieve a creamy consistency. Depending on the power of your blender it can take up to 5-8 minutes, make sure to scrape down the sides once in a while.
  2. Add all other ingredients and only pulse briefly.
  3. Enjoy

Note use any other butter instead of pumpkin or use chocolate 3 oz added after you remove from heat.

MACADAMIA HONEY BUTTER PRALINES
CHOCOLATE PRALINES

VEGAN PUMPKIN DONUTS WITH CINNAMON SUGAR

SOURCE: https://veganhuggs.com/cinnamon-sugar-pumpkin-spice-donuts/

So pumpkin season is back everything pumpkin all around for the next few months, so why not have a yummy vegan pumpkin donut!! The recipe calls for sugar cinnamon topping but we tried it with chocolate too. This recipe is from http://www.veganhuggs.com they always have great recipes to try out. And since we want to keep up with pumpkin season we will check out a few more recipes on their site:

Ingredients

Wet Ingredients

  • 1/2 cup soy milk (or any plant-based milk – *see note)1/2 cup soy milk (or any plant-based milk – *see note)
  • 1 1/2 teaspoons apple cider vinegar (sub white vinegar or lemon juice)1 1/2 teaspoons apple cider vinegar (sub white vinegar or lemon juice)
  • 1 cup pumpkin puree (not pumpkin pie filling)1 cup pumpkin puree (not pumpkin pie filling)
  • 1/2 cup granulated sugar1/2 cup granulated sugar
  • 1/3 cup brown sugar , light1/3 cup brown sugar , light
  • 1/3 cup grapeseed oil or any neutral-flavored oil (avocado, sunflower, etc.)1/3 cup grapeseed oil or any neutral-flavored oil (avocado, sunflower, etc.)
  • 2 teaspoons vanilla extract2 teaspoons vanilla extract

Dry Ingredients

  • 1 3/4 cups all-purpose flour , sifted1 3/4 cups all-purpose flour , sifted
  • 3 tablespoons cornstarch3 tablespoons cornstarch
  • 2 teaspoons baking powder2 teaspoons baking powder
  • 1 teaspoon baking soda1 teaspoon baking soda
  • 2 1/2 teaspoons pumpkin spice2 1/2 teaspoons pumpkin spice
  • 3/4 teaspoon salt3/4 teaspoon salt

Cinnamon Sugar Coating

  • 3 tablespoons vegan butter , melted3 tablespoons vegan butter , melted
  • 1/2 cup granulated sugar1/2 cup granulated sugar
  • 2 1/2 teaspoons ground cinnamon2 1/2 teaspoons ground cinnamon

Instructions

  • Preheat oven to 350 °F (177 °C) and lightly grease the slots of two donut pans.
  • In a Medium Mixing Bowl, add the soy milk and apple cider vinegar. Combine and let it sit for 10 minutes to create vegan buttermilk. It will thicken and curdle slightly. Set aside.
  • To a Large Mixing Bowl, add the Flour, Corn Starch, Baking Powder, Baking Soda, Pumpkin Spice, and Salt. Whisk to combine well. Set aside.
  • To the Medium Bowl with the Buttermilk, add the Granulated Sugar, Brown Sugar, Oil, Pumpkin, and Vanilla. Whisk to combine well.
  • Now add the wet ingredients into the large bowl of dry ingredients. Fold batter gently with a spatula until just combined. The batter should be thick. Don’t overwork the batter or it can cause dense and chewy donut.
  • Using a spoon add your batter to a large Ziploc or decorating bag. Twist top closed and snip off one corner leaving a 1/2 ” hole (*hold the bag upwards when cutting so the batter doesn’t leak out). Pipe the batter into your greased donut pans. Fill about 3/4 of the way full. 
  • Place in the oven on the middle rack for 12-15 minutes. To check for doneness, lightly press the surface. If it springs back, they are ready.
  • Remove the pans from the oven and let them cool for 10 minutes before touching (but don’t leave them longer than that). Now gently remove the donuts and let them completely cool on a cooling rack for 10-15 minutes before coating. 

Cinnamon Sugar Coating

  • In a small bowl, whisk to combine the sugar and cinnamon. 
  • Lightly brush the top of each donut with melted butter and dip into the cinnamon sugar. Gently twist to coat. Enjoy!

Notes

I prefer soy milk because it thickens and curdles really well with the vinegar, making it closest to dairy buttermilk. However, you can use any plant-based milk of your choosing. Donuts are freshest the same day, but they will store in an airtight container for 2-3 days. Place a paper towel underneath and on top of the donuts to absorb moisture. FREEZING: You can freeze them in an airtight container or Ziploc for 2-3 months. To thaw, leave them out at room temp for 20-30 minutes. You can also wrap them in a moist paper towel and microwave them for 20-30 seconds. 

How To Plant Fall Garlic And Onions

SOURCE: https://oldworldgardenfarms.com/2020/08/09/plant-fall-garlic-and-onions/

Every kitchen needs to always be stocked with garlic and onions for all the recipes. So if you don’t want to ever be caught without start growing them at home. Check out step by step from http://www.oldworldgardenfarms.com:

Fall is the perfect time for planting a delicious crop of garlic and onions in your garden! And with just a little work now, you’ll be rewarded with a bountiful harvest early next summer. Although both garlic and onions can be planted and grown as traditional spring crops, an early Autumn planting has several advantages.

planting onions and garlic
It’s hard to beat the flavor of home grown garlic and onions. And the two crops just happen to be one of the easiest of all to grow.

For one, fall planting allows each plant to grow a larger, more robust bulb come harvest time. But even better, overwintering these two crops also helps to develop better flavor in the bulbs – as if they both weren’t already tasty enough!

And let’s face it, you can never have enough delicious homegrown garlic or onions on hand. In fact, we use at least one or both everyday, whether it’s for fresh-made dishes, or as ingredients in tried and true recipes like our homemade garlic pasta sauce or overnight garlic pickles.

planting garlic and onions in the fall
Planting a fall crop of garlic and onions is an annual ritual at the farm. And one that yields a delicious crop of both the following summer.

And that is exactly why planting our fall crop is important! Here is a look at how we plant both onions and garlic, along with a few secrets we have learned along the way to growing a successful crop.

3 Big Secrets For Planting Fall Garlic & Onions

#1 Plant The Right Way – At The Right Time!

When planting a fall crop of garlic and onions, it’s important to get your bulbs in at just the right time. For both, that means planting to allow 6 to 8 weeks of growth before the cold of winter sets in and they go dormant.

That growing time is critical for both crops, as it allows them to set their roots for strong growth in the spring.

planting garlic
Whether it’s onions or garlic, always plant with the tip of the bulb facing up.

Here on our little Ohio farm, we usually plant during the first week of September. But wherever you live, simply count back 6 to 8 weeks from when your fall frost / freeze dates occur, and plant accordingly.

Great Soil = A Great Crop

For maximum growth, it is critical for both crops to have fertile, well draining soil. It not only allows bulbs to grow larger, but keeps them from rotting in the sometimes overly wet conditions of late fall and early spring.

Before planting fall garlic or onions, add in generous amounts of compost to the bottom of each planting furrow. The compost will provide both the nutrients and improved drainage the bulbs need to thrive.

compost as fertilizer
Adding in generous amounts of compost to the planting row is a must.

To accomplish this, we first dig our furrow, and then add about an inch of compost into the bottom of the trench. Then we plant the bulbs down into the layer of compost. This allows the seed to be surrounded by life-giving nutrients as it sprouts and grows.

Both garlic and onions can be planted in rows, but they can be grouped closer than you might think no matter how you plant. In our 18″ wide raised rows, we plant both crops 3-wide down each row, with 4″ spacing between bulbs.

This closeness not only helps conserve space, but also helps to keep weeding and maintenance to a minimum. In a single 20′ long bed, we can grow close to 80 heads of garlic or onions.

We allow about 4″ between bulbs when planting. The gives plenty of space for bulbs to mature to full size.

As for the depth of planting, we plant our garlic bulbs 3″ deep, while the onions go in at 2 inches. And remember when planting – always plant with the pointy tip of the bulb facing up. 

#2 Soak Before Planting – How To Plant Fall Garlic & Onions

One of the best things you can do to get your onion and garlic crops off to a great start is to soak them before planting.

soaking garlic bulbs for fall planting

Soaking allows the bulbs to absorb moisture before heading into the ground. And without moisture, bulbs simply won’t sprout.

To soak, simply fill up a 5 gallon bucket of water the night before planting and dump the bulbs in. Be sure to use water that is not treated as it can actually harm the bulbs.

The simple task of soaking bulbs can speed up sprout times by a week or more!

#3 Mulch Those Crops – How To Plant Fall Garlic & Onions

And perhaps the biggest secret of all for a great crop is to mulch that crop! Not only does it help protect the crop through winter, it also keeps competing weeds at bay.

Mulching is critical for both weed control and for regulating the soil temperature through the cold winter months.

After planting, place a thin 1″ mulching of straw on top of your crop. Once crops have emerged, apply an additional 3 to 5 inches of mulch before winter sets

This will help to protect each of the crops from the harsh winter temperatures and winds. Once spring arrives, simply add a bit of fresh mulch to top of the rows, and get ready for a great early summer harvest!

Honey Roasted Macadamia Nut Butter

SOURCE: https://www.notenoughcinnamon.com/honey-roasted-macadamia-nut-butter-scratch/#wprm-recipe-container-9025

I found this recipe in a magazine and tried it amazing, so happy to found the original site where it was posted http://www.notenoughcinnamon.com. If you want to skip the roasting find the macadamia already roasted:

Ingredients

  • 2 tbsp honey
  • 4 tsp coconut oil melted
  • 1/2 tsp cinnamon
  • 1 pinch salt
  • 2 cups raw whole macadamia nuts

Instructions

  1. Preheat oven to 350F/180C. Line a baking sheet with parchment paper.
  2. In a medium bowl, mix together honey, coconut oil, cinnamon and salt (I used a wooden spoon). Add nuts and mix to coat them with honey-coconut oil mixture.
  3. Spread nuts on a lined baking sheet in a single layer. Bake for 15 minutes or until golden brown and roasted. Keep an eye on the oven to make sure they don’t burn. Remove from the oven. Let them cool a little.
  4. Transfer roasted nuts to food processor or high speed blender and process until smooth. You should get a very smooth butter in less than 5 minutes. Transfer into an airtight container and store in the pantry or the fridge.

Recipe Notes

As with natural peanut butter, the oil will separates out on top and you’ll need to stir the macadamia nut before eating it.

2 Ingredient Vegan Sweetened Condensed Milk

Another quick substitutes so my vegan friends and enjoy my next project! Make your own sweetened condensed milk at home that is completely dairy free. This recipe comes from http://www.karissasvegankitchen.com and I tried it out with the coconut sugar it’s amazing and taste extra coconutty:

Ingredients

  • 1 can full fat coconut milk*
  • 1/3 cup organic sugar

Instructions

  • In a pot on medium heat, bring the coconut milk and the sugar to a boil. Keep a close eye on it so it doesn’t boil over.
  • Reduce heat to medium-low and simmer for 40-45 minutes (until liquid is reduced by about half.)
  • Stir or whisk every 5 minutes or so.
  • Remove from heat and let cool (it will get even thicker as it cools.)
  • Store in fridge for up to 10 days.

Notes

*Light coconut milk or coconut milk in a carton will not work for this recipe.**Coconut sugar or maple syrup will also work with this recipe in the same amount – the color will be darker, however. This recipe makes about 3/4 cups of sweetened condensed coconut milk.

COCONUT SUGAR MIX

MILK KEFIR VS. WATER KEFIR

SOURCE: https://www.culturesforhealth.com/learn/milk-kefir/milk-kefir-vs-water-kefir

Friends have been asking me about kefir grains what are they, where do they come from, what are they for? I came across them just trying to learn to make cheese and they gave me some in the class so really got lucky. Well when I needed more I found http://www.culturesforhealth.com sells them and they explain everything you need to know about them:

THE TWO TYPES OF KEFIR

There are two different types of kefir. Milk kefir, a probiotic beverage, is fairly well-known, and can be found in many grocery stores.

Water kefir is another probiotic-rich beverage; however, water kefir is dairy-free. Water kefir is also a lighter beverage and can be flavored any number of ways.

Each type of kefir has unique characteristics and is made slightly differently. If you’re looking to add probiotics to your daily routine, see which of these fermented beverages is best for you!

HOW KEFIR IS MADE

Milk Kefir is made with cow milk, goat milk, or coconut milk. It may also be made with other non-dairy milks, though results may be inconsistent. You will also need a starter culture, such as Milk Kefir Grains or a powdered Kefir Starter Culture.

Water Kefir is made with sugar water, fruit juice, or coconut water. Water kefir also requires a starter culture. You can use a Kefir Starter Culture or Water Kefir Grains, depending on how often you want to make water kefir.

WHAT KEFIR CONTAINS

Milk Kefir Grains are a traditional reusable starter culture used to make a probiotic-rich beverage with live active yeast and bacteria. Our Milk Kefir Grains are propagated in organic milk.

Water Kefir Grains are a traditional reusable starter culture used to make a dairy-free cultured beverage with live active yeast and bacteria. Our Water Kefir Grains are grown in organic sugar and filtered water.

HOW KEFIR TASTES

Milk Kefir tastes like a cultured milk. The taste of any particular batch depends on the level of fermentation. Well-fermented kefir can have a strong sour or tart taste and can even be a bit carbonated. Shorter fermentation can yield a more mild flavor.

Water Kefir tends to have a sweet, slightly fermented flavor. Most people prefer flavored water kefir.

HOW KEFIR IS FLAVORED

Milk Kefir can be flavored by blending in fresh or frozen fruit, flavor extracts such as vanilla, sweeteners such as honey, maple syrup, stevia and more. Some people choose to ferment milk kefir a second time to enhance the flavor.

Water Kefir can be flavored using fresh or dried fruit, flavor extracts such as vanilla, fruit juice, or even herbs.

OTHER WAYS TO USE KEFIR

Milk Kefir grains can be used to inoculate cream to make cultured butter or kefir cream. Extra milk kefir grains may be used as starter culture for fermenting vegetables. Extra milk kefir can be used for sourdough or to soak flour before baking.

Water Kefir can be added to non-dairy milk to make a non-dairy kefir (use ¼ cup water kefir in 2-3 cups non-dairy milk). Extra water kefir grains may be used as starter culture for fermenting vegetables. Extra water kefir can be used as a booster for making gluten-free sourdough starter.

Guide to Washing Vegetables

If you love buying fresh veggies from the framers market probably not to crazy when you get home and realize there is still dirt on some. It’s probably not a good idea to wash them either if you are going to put them away in the frig, thank goodness Martha Stewart has your guide to washing fresh vegetables!

How to Wash Vegetables

Before washing vegetables, wash your hands. Soaking or swirling vegetables in a bowl of water is ineffective and may even spread a contaminant. Vegetables must first be scrubbed, and then rinsed off in running water. If you intend to peel the vegetables later, wash them with soap. Soap also destroys waxy coatings that bacteria enjoy sticking to. If you intend eating the vegetables with skins on, some soap residue may remain, and the FDA has no data on the effects of consuming it. And special washes marketed for fresh produce have not been evaluated for their effectiveness. If in doubt, peel before eating.

Use a clean scrubbing brush to clean your vegetables, the disinfect it in the dishwasher after. After you’re done scrubbing, rinse washed vegetables under running water. Dry thoroughly with freshly cleaned kitchen towels or paper towels.

Which Vegetables Should Be Washed?

Vegetables with skins should always be washed. These include roots and tubers like beets, carrots, turnips, parsnips, celeriac, radishes, rutabagas, potatoes, and sweet potatoes. Fruits (that are often confused for vegetables) including cucumbers, peppers, eggplants, tomatoes, and summer and winter squash also fall into this category. Luckily, they all come with handy built-in wrappers (their skin) and are the easiest to wash effectively.

You should also clean all stem vegetables. The outer stems of celery and fennel can be removed (just remember to save them for cooking), and then you’ll want to wash the rest of the vegetable.

In the flower and bud family, you’ll want to wash globe artichokes, broccolini, broccoli, and cauliflower—but these are all vegetables that are hard to wash perfectly. If you’re cooking them, there’s nothing to worry about—harmful bacteria that you missed during the washing process will cook off. If you want to enjoy the crucifers raw we recommend peeling and eating broccoli’s thick, washed stems, or the crunchy core of a cauliflower.

Beans and peas in shells should be placed in a strainer for cleaning; rub them well while rinsing under running water. Certain vegetables in the onion family do not lend themselves to washing. Case in point? Washing onions and garlic with dry skins is not practical, but do peel them and wash your knife and hands after peeling, and before chopping or slicing. Soak leeks to get rid of lurking sand, but then rinse them under running water. Ditto with scallions.

For leafy greens like cabbages and Brussels sprouts, be sure to remove their outer leaves before washing. Swiss chard, chicories, dandelions, spinach, all the Asian greens, beet greens, lettuces, and arugula are impossible to wash 100 percent effectively. In fact, washing may even spread a contaminant like E.coli around. Cooking-heat will destroy any pathogen. Cooked greens are still very healthy and are sometimes more nutritious than raw (think spinach). The bad news is that we love raw salad, and people get sick more often from eating contaminated lettuce and other salad greens because they are rarely cooked before being eaten.

Are pre-washed, bagged greens safer? No. Pathogens may have been present in their washing water, or on hands when they were bagged. The only way to eliminate any chance of foodborne illness from leaves is to cook them. But if you love salad as much as we do, you may prefer to rinse them under running water, take a deep breathe, and trust the statistics. The chances are excellent that they will do you more good than harm.

The most reliable method of destroying foodborne pathogens is heat: If you want to be certain that dangerous microbes are not present, wash, and then cook your vegetables. Experts recommend that any fresh produce, whether it’s organically grown, purchased from a supermarket or a farmers’ market, or even from your own garden, should be washed. Microscopic pathogens hide in plain sight. Bacteria, viruses, and parasites are the tiny culprits that cause foodborne illness.

Bacteria are everywhere and are essential for life (and sourdough!). A million could fit on the head of a pin. In terms of food safety, undesirable bacteria come mostly from unwashed hands. They may also be spread through dirty water (in irrigation or, ironically, triple washing), livestock or wild animal feces, coughing, sneezing, insects, rodents, or dirty utensils. Viruses are tinier than bacteria. Unlike bacteria, viruses do not reproduce in food; it only serves as their vehicle to a human host. The presence of a virus on fresh produce is usually a sign of contamination due to poor hygiene: like not washing hands thoroughly after using the toilet, or coughing, and before handling food.

Parasites are rare in vegetables (raw meat and fish are the more common vectors). But parasites can be transmitted by poor hygiene (wash hands after cleaning the litter box), or via wild foods—like mushrooms collected where animal scat is present, or watercress from streams where liver fluke occurs. When in doubt, cook vegetables thoroughly. Washing will not help.